Archive for February, 2012

Clinker

Tuesday, February 21st, 2012

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Reconstructed from the modern brick masonry of the front gate of 10-20% has already collapsed, and the old brick building, which 250 years – is worth it! The restorers did not take into account that virtually all the old brick was clinker, ie high-density, stone-like ceramic material. Clinker will protect the house until it collapses. All clinker ceramics produced in the course of high firing semi-finished manufactured from selected shale method extrusion molding. Shale, mined in the North-Western Germany, is very different from the clay deposits in other parts of the world. The main features of the clay used for clinker production is its plasticity, the absence of salt and chalk, which makes raw materials and finished products are homogeneous structure.

In addition, the clay is ground further in order to avoid the appearance of voids. Feature of the production Clinker is also a high-fired, which takes place in tunnel kilns up to 150 m. Sintering components of mineral raw materials occurs at a temperature of about 1200 C. Next is a special roasting, allowing get a wider color gamut, and the temperature can reach 2000 C. Thanks to all the components of the manufacturing process, finished goods becomes homogeneous finely porous structure and has minimal water absorption, and consequently, high frost resistance. A variety of colors is achieved only by natural means: through the shade used clay by applying a layer of glaze, which does not only enhances the decorative quality of the ceramics, but also protects it from negative influences; vpekaniya method of coal in the raw material during firing to get 'burnt' shade.

Areas of strong performance strength and low water absorption for high frost resistance, durability, lack of efflorescence and other problems associated with the aggressive action of moisture. These characteristics allow the use of clinker for interior decorating, and for the external cladding of facades, landscape design, development of industrial areas. Solution to any architectural problems can be successfully accomplished with the clinker. Throughout the entire period of operation of clinker retains its original color, has a noble appearance, by which it immediately distinguish. Also widespread use of clay pottery for decoration pools, fountains and other water containers. World practice shows that the clinker is the best quality material for these works. Competition can make a ceramic or natural granite top grade. Clinker – a material with high resistance to external influences. In our latitudes, with a long autumn and winter, it is especially important. Original with photos

High Alloy Steels

Saturday, February 4th, 2012

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Welding of medium-and high-alloy steels is difficult for the following reasons: during the welding process is a partial burning of dopants and carbon due to the low thermal conductivity may overheat welded metal, reinforced by the emergence of a tendency to hardening of structures, greater than that of low-carbon, linear expansion coefficient can cause significant stress and strain associated with heat the influence of the arc. The more dopants in carbon steel, the stronger the effect of these properties. To eliminate their influence on the quality of welded joints is recommended the following process steps:-meticulously prepare the product for welding, welding carried out at high speeds with little heat input to avoid overheating the metal – to prevent the reduction of internal stresses and the formation of hardening structures use heat treatment;-use of weld metal alloying electrode wire through the coating and to fill the burnable impurities in the welding process. Welding is done with direct current feedback polarity. At the same welding current is selected for 25 … 40 A to 1 m diameter electrode. The arc length may be short.

In industry and construction extensively used medium-and high-alloy steels: manganese, chromium, chromium-nickel, molybdenum and chromium steels, etc. belong to the group of stainless acid-proof and corrosion-resistant steel. The chromium content they share on srednelegirovannye (up to 14% Cr) and heavily doped (14 … 30% Cr). During welding of chromium steels having the following difficulties. Chromium at 600 … 900 C readily reacts with carbon to form carbides, which are situated in the thickness of the metal, speed intergranular corrosion, minimizing the mechanical properties of steel.

Wallpaper

Friday, February 3rd, 2012

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To reduce the suction capacity of the surface and creating her adhesive film surface glued with glue or flour paste cmc with the addition of animal glue. Recommended prokleivat warm flour paste, which is easily absorbed into the surface. Paste is applied with a brush and centrifugal good shade. In the case of dry glue industrial surface previously primed with the same adhesive, but thinner in the ratio indicated on the label. To keep pace with wallpaper on the surface adhesively bonded sheets of porous paper (you can use old newspapers). Paper, a more porous material, thoroughly soaked with paste and firmly retained on the surface, while aligning it.

Under simple and the average density of wallpaper paper glued lap, and by stamping and dense – back to back. Work on the adhesion of paper perform two painter. One of them plaster paste and stacked in a pile on the table sheets and feeds them to the second worker. Having taken a piece of paper, the second working sticks it to the surface and gently smooths dry cloth or brush to it had no wrinkles and bumps. According to the dried glue paper wallpaper. In the preparation of gypsum concrete and surfaces for wallpaper pasting paper perform the same operations as in the preparation of plaster, with the exception of pasting the paper surface. Preparation of surfaces, coated with sheets of drywall The surface of the drywall careful not to break the board, clear of spray putty. Seams between sheets of palms and after drying of bedding grind.

Queen Victoria

Friday, February 3rd, 2012

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On the way here and was the Emperor himself. Queen Victoria stayed at the Grand Hotel. Today, tourists are attracted by such activities as visits to caves in the hills north of Grasse and the world famous perfumes. Perfumery industry was born here in the 16. The city was the center of the leather industry and famous for the production of gloves with 13. Then tastes and needs changed and dressing of leather sunk into oblivion. Today, the industry increasingly relies on artificial substitutes, than fresh flowers.

Many older factories are abandoned and their brick chimneys as the onetime Daily towering monuments in the southern part of the city. Flowers, of course, also be used, but they surrendered their position considerably. Spirits 'Chanel 5' – are among the most in demand worldwide. They contain jasmine, rose and artificial musks. A few do not back because of bad weather, was frustrated delivery of jasmine and to avoid stopping production and dependency on the whims of the market and weather for Chanel was purchased flower farm near Grasse. Annually exclusively for Chanel here grow 20 tons of jasmine and 50 tons of rose petals. Jasmine was brought to Grass from Nepal to 1560g. These delicate flowers require delicate handling and manual data collection.

From 8000 to 10000 flowers correspond to 1 kilogram. Y Collector goes up to an hour to collect 500 grams. Collected petals are packed in bags and in half an hour (!) Delivered to the factory Chanel. In other households the collection of essential oils put off to another day, but for Chanel freshness is a prerequisite. After weighing the petals are loaded into the tanks at 50 kg and washed three times in 2000 liters of a special solution, which washes away essential oils, waxes and resins. After removing the flowers, the solution was evaporated in year and a half hours, the remaining extract can be stored for several years. Then, using alcohol to extract the essential oils. When the alcohol evaporates, the resulting flower extract is used to create various spirits. Spirits have always been an important part of human history. They were used at all times, they were familiar to the Egyptians, Romans, they were known to the Chinese civilization, its mentioned in the Bible, they are tempted, masked, creating a mysterious and enchanting atmosphere, they are the privilege of the rich and powerful. Accessible to "mere mortals" they began in 1900 thanks to the Franco-x Kochi. In 1905g.etot cousin of Napoleon Bonaparte opened the first mass production of near Paris. After 1920, many countries engaged in the production of spirits, but the French perfumes are still without equal.

LGP Scrapers

Thursday, February 2nd, 2012

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Under license from Liebherr dozers release of Bell and John Deere. It is noteworthy that the technique of all these producers meant practically for all occasions: for work on the moor (type LGP or PX) and coal depots, for road construction, dumping industrial waste and municipal solid waste (WHA). Most manufacturers produce machines with increased track width, or enlarged base. Among the characteristic features of some models of Caterpillar and Hindustan should include the use of triangular tracked contours with highly elevated driving wheel located between the front and rear idlers. This design prevents the increased wear crowns of driving wheels and avoids direct contact with the abrasive and wet environments. Until recently, the bulldozer-loosening assembly T-330 rear-engined in 1975 produced a plant CHZPT. Now the machine produces a layout of Kharkov Plant. VA Malyshev (engineering machine BG-1). Legend dumps in the table: S – direct (hard materials); U – universal extension boxes with large kerchiefs (skewed, which improves the ability to dig trenches and stripping works can also be used for land reclamation); SU – semiuniversal with short side scarves (with a buffer plate is effective for pushing scrapers to loading); A – Rotary, identical in form S-blade (for rock and heavy work); P – Variable load angle of tilt, VP (VPAT-Blade) – with adjustable height of lifting, lowering, rotation angle and tilt; RC – remediation universal; WC – for coal chips; CL – coal; HU – a powerful universal; LF – trash to landfills, with increased volume "bowl; TW – blade to work in two directions – pushing / drawing (cleaning the holds of ships); CU – the buffer to the amortization for the pushing scrapers (scrapers push for profiling on loading); CPB – push block to the amortization for pushing scrapers (for profiling pushing scrapers to loading); CB – Carbon bulldozer; VR – with variable radius.